# 1 Objectives and contexts

This tutorial aims to introduce RMarkdown, a working environment for creating documents in data science.

In a single RMarkdown file, it is possible to write code and execute it, and then produce reports (mixing text, code, and code evaluation results) to be shared. The code can be R, but not only: it is possible to evaluate instructions from other languages such as Python or SQL, among others. The possible output formats are numerous. Among the most used: html, pdf, Word, notebook, ioslides.

The {rmarkdown} package can be installed using the following instruction.

install.packages("rmarkdown")

The main reference document on which this guide is based is the RMarkdown Cookbook, written by Yihui Xie, Christophe Dervieux and Emily Riederer (Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2020). An electronic version is available free of charge at the following address https://bookdown.org/yihui/rmarkdown-cookbook/.

A two-page cheat sheet on R Markdown has been produced by RStudio: https://www.rstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/rmarkdown-cheatsheet.pdf.

# 2 Creating an RMarkdown document with RStudio

On RStudio, it is good practice to work with projects. First, create an RStudio project, following the tree structure shown in the image below.

Création d’un projet

In RStudio:

• Click on the File menu, then New Project....
• Click on New Directory, then New Project.
• Give the new project a name, then click the Browse... button.
• Choose the location of the project, then press the Open button.
• Click the Create Project button to create the project. This opens a new RStudio session. The current directory becomes the one in which you created the project. An extension file .Rproj has been created in this directory. Simply open this file in the future to open RStudio to work on this project.

On the University computers, you will want to make sure you create the project in the C:/Workout folder. Compiling on VDI (virtual desktop infrastructure) seems to be impossible at the moment.

Please note: at the end of the session, you should remember to copy and paste the entire directory containing your project into your Documents folder. The contents of the C:/Workout folder are deleted when you log out.

Now that the project is created, it is time to create an R Markdown document.

Creating an R Markdown document

In RStudio:

• Click on the File menu, then New File....

• Click on R Markdown....

• In the window that appears :

• make sure you are in the “Document” tab
• give a title to the document you are going to create
• fill in the “Author” field with your first and last name
• leave the radio button on the HTML option so that the report that will be created afterwards is an html document (a language designed for presenting web pages).
• create the document by clicking on the OK button.
• Save the file created by giving it a name of your choice (e.g. first_report.Rm).

An RMarkdown document, with the extension .Rmd is then created. This document consists of three parts:

• YAML (meta-data)
• text
• code chunks.

## 2.1 YAML

In the document you have just created, the YAML header indicates :

title: "Mon premier document R Markdown"
author: "Ewen Gallic"
date: "2/7/2022"
output: html_document

The document title, author and date are specified in this header. When the Rmd file is converted to an html file by Pandoc (a document conversion software), this information will be stored in variables and will appear in one or more places in the html file (depending on the template used). The output: html_document line indicates that the output document will be an html document. Other elements can be indicated, notably in the output part: presence of a table of contents, numbering of sections, addition of a style sheet, etc.

In a few words, the conversion steps are as follows:

• the knit() function of the package {knitr} executes the codes contained in the chunks and prepares a Markdow file (.md)
• Pandoc software converts the .md’ file into an output format (html, pdf, etc.)

If the output format is pdf, an additional step is added: the .md file is converted into a LaTeX file (.tex). A compilation of the .tex file is then performed by LaTeX to obtain the final pdf file. This requires LaTeX or TinyTeX to be installed on your system.

• toc: yes : the creation of a table of contents is desired (table of contents) ;
• toc_depth: 3 : the integer given as a value defines the depth of the table of contents (1: only sections, 2: sections and sub-sections, 3: sections, sub-sections and sub-sub-sections, etc.)
• toc_float: true : the table of contents will be inserted as a floating object and permanently visible throughout the document.
---
title: "Mon premier document R Markdown"
author: "Ewen Gallic"
date: "2/7/2022"
output: html_document:
toc: yes
toc_depth: 3
toc_float: true
---

Please note that indentations must be respected, as in the previous example.

For a table of contents on a final pdf document, the YAML must contain the pairs toc: yes and toc_depth:3.

---
title: "Mon premier document R Markdown"
author: "Ewen Gallic"
date: "2/7/2022"
output: pdf_document:
toc: yes
toc_depth: 3
---

## 2.2 Texts

The .Rmd file can contain text that is written in markdown. More information will be given later in this sheet about markdown syntax (which is very simple).

## 2.3 Code Chunks

The pieces of code contain two parts:

• code to be evaluated, in a given language (we will use R);
• a list of options for the piece of code.

To be executed, the code calls on an environment (in which variables can be created). This environment can be modified after the code is executed.

## 2.4 Compilation

To compile an R Markdown document, once the YAML is well specified, you need to:

• call the render() function of the {rmarkdown} package:

• by providing it with the path to the Rmd file via the input argument: rmarkdown::render(input = "your_document_rmarkdown.Rmd")
• then go to the file explorer / Finder to open the converted file
• click on the Knit button (you can easily spot it with its knitting needle icon and ball of wool);

• press the keyboard keys Ctrl / Cmd + Shift + K simultaneously.

The last two solutions lead to displaying the result in a window that opens at the end of the compilation.

Compile your first Markdown R file in one of the three ways shown, then look at the result.

# 3 Writing text: syntax in Markdown

The text parts that add narrative to the reports can be written in markdown. The syntax is very simple.

## 3.1 Text

Simply write as in a notepad and the text will be displayed in the final report.
Ending a line with two spaces allows you to go to the next line.

Leaving a blank line between two texts creates a new paragraph.

## 3.2 Text styles

Style Syntax Example Rendering
Bold ** ** or __ __ **bold** text bold text
Italic * * or _ _ A word in *italic* A word in italic
Strikethrough text ~~ ~~ I ~~like~~ love R I like love R
A part in italics in bold **- -** A **_very_ important text** A very important text
All in bold and italics *** *** ***新年快樂*** (Xin nian kuai le) 新年快樂 (Xin nian kuai le)
Exponent ^ ^ January 1^st^ January 1st

## 3.3 Titles

There are six levels of headings in Markdown R documents. The title text is preceded by as many braces (#) as the desired level.

# Level 1 title

## Level 2 title

### Level 3 title

#### Level 4 title

##### Level 5 title

###### Level 6 title

Notes :

• the hash sign must be followed by a space;
• it is necessary to insert a blank line before and after the title.

## 3.4 Citations

To make a quotation in a block, the quotation must be preceded by the symbol >, which is placed at the beginning of the line. Example with> chúc mừng năm mới :

chúc mừng năm mới

To make a quotation contain several paragraphs, a chevron (>) must be added at the beginning of empty lines.

> “How can two people hate so much without knowing each other?”
>
> --- Alan Moore, _The Killing Joke_

“How can two people hate so much without knowing each other?”

— Alan Moore, The Killing Joke

## 3.5 Long dashes, medium dashes

To insert a long dash (cadratine), three dashes are used: ---; for a short dash (or semi-cadratine), two dashes are used: --.

Desired symbol Syntax Example Rendering
Long dash (cadratine) --- --- a line — a line
Middle dash (half-cadratine) -- The France--Italy border The France–Italy border

By typing three dashes --- and passing immediately to the line, a horizontal line is inserted.

## 3.7 Suspension points

To write ellipses, just write three dots (...) in a row…

A hyperlink is created using two elements: a text to be clicked on, which must be enclosed in square brackets [], and an address to which the link points, which must be enclosed in brackets (()).

Look at this [wonderful video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQw4w9WgXcQ).

Look at this wonderful video.

To create a link without defining specific text to replace the URL, it is possible to simply write the URL. However, it is preferable to enclose the URL in chevrons. The same applies to an email address.

<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oavMtUWDBTM>
<ewen.gallic@univ-amu.fr>

To create an anchor (a link to a specific location on the page already displayed) to a title of the document, you need to know the reference to the anchor point. A simple way is to define it yourself, using the following syntax:

# Title {#name-of-the-ref}

The name of the reference must not contain spaces or underscores (_). It may, however, as in the example, contain dashes (-).

In this document, the sub-section in which this text is included is defined as follows:

## Hyperlinks {#liens-hypertextes}
This makes it easy to link to this [section](#liens-hypertextes).

This makes it easy to link to this section.

## 3.9 Footnotes

Numbered footnotes are inserted using square brackets ([]) containing a circumferential accent and a reference which can be either a number or text (but without spaces or other blank characters).

The footnote number is a link to the footnote. A return arrow is proposed to go back to the text when the document created is an html document.

A simple footnote[^1] followed by a longer note[^long-note].

[^1]: the footnote.

[^long-note]: a longer footnote.

In which a paragraph can be written.

{ some code }

Several paragraphs can even be written.

A simple footnote1 followed by a longer note2.

## 3.10 Lists

There are two types of lists: ordered and unordered.

### 3.10.1 Ordered lists

To create an ordered list, a number is placed at the beginning of the line in front of each item in the list, followed immediately by a full stop and a space.

1. A first element
2. A second element
3. A third element.
1. A first element
2. A second element
3. A third element.

It is not necessary to respect the numbering:

1. A first element
10. A second element
5. A third element.
1. A first element
2. A second element
3. A third element.

The number of the first element in the ordered list defines the counter value:

4. A first element
10. A second element
5. A third element.
1. A first element
2. A second element
3. A third element.

### 3.10.2 Unordered lists

To insert an unordered list, precede each element with the - symbol or the * symbol.

A list including :

* A first element.
* A second element.
* A third element.

A list including :

• A first element.
• A second element.
• A third element.

## 3.11 Nested lists

To add a list within a list, either a tab stop or 4 spaces must be added before the dash or star.

- A first element.
- A secibd element:
- Which contains a sub-element.
- And a second sub-element.
- And a third one.
- A third element.
• A first element.
• A secibd element:
• Which contains a sub-element.
• And a second sub-element.
• And a third one.
• A third element.

To write a paragraph inside a list, a tab or 4 spaces must be added to maintain the continuity of the list. The paragraph must also be preceded by an empty list (an empty line can also be added after the paragraph, but this is optional).

- A first element.
- A second element:

This element contains a paragraph.

- A third element.
• A first element.

• A second element:

This element contains a paragraph.

• A third element.

It is perfectly possible to nest an ordered list in an unordered list and conversely.

1. A first element:
- With a sub-element.
2. A second element.
1. A first element:
• With a sub-element.
2. A second element.

## 3.12 Images

Adding an image is done by inserting an exclamation mark (!), followed by a title in square brackets, and then the path to the image in brackets (()). A description of the image can be added in inverted commas ("") after the path, still within the brackets (this description is visible when the mouse pointer hovers over the image for a few seconds, and can be read aloud by systems designed for people with disabilities). Finally, to specify image size parameters, it is possible to add information in square brackets ({}).

![A Tiger](figs/tigre.JPG "Paper tiger"){width="200px"}`